On 28th November MEPs adopted a resolution calling on the EU to set climate neutrality as a long-term objective under the Paris Agreement by 2050 and to increase the target of reducing emissions to 55% by 2030. In a separate resolution, members declared a climate emergency in Europe. Global climate governance began with the Rio conference, called the Earth Summit, held in 1992. On this occasion, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed by 154 United Nations. The first IPCC progress report, published two years earlier, served as the basis for the Framework Convention. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted under the auspices of the UNFCCC. The signing of the UNFCCC and then the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 provided an international framework for tackling climate change and also provided the essential multilateral platform for EU climate diplomacy in an increasingly multipolar world. Indeed, it was the first opportunity for the EU to play its leading role in the multilateral climate regime. Building on its successful role in the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, the EU was subsequently able to continue to influence climate policy at the conferences of the parties (COPs) that followed. In this regard, the institution of the High Ambition Coalition (HAC), created six months before COP21, was essential. These include the EU, all its Member States, several developing countries and small public islands.
The EU had the ability to lead this coalition and convinced other key players during the discussions, such as the US under the Obama administration and Brazil, to rally behind the demand for an ambitious deal at COP21. The conference resulted in the adoption of the Paris Agreement, a new legally binding framework for international coordination of efforts to combat climate change. This agreement sets the ambitious goal of keeping the global average temperature rise well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and making efforts to limit the rise in temperatures to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. To achieve these objectives, the Parties shall strive to reach a global peak in greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible and to achieve net-zero emissions in the second half of this century. This is why countries are called upon to increase the ambition of their climate commitments over time. In particular, participating countries committed to submit national contributions to the UNFCCC and to increase the ambition of their targets every five years. NNCs are national climate plans that identify the goals and guidelines that countries intend to adopt to combat climate change. In addition, the Paris Agreement also mentioned that the parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term development strategies for low greenhouse gas emissions. . . .